More than 400 academics and political scientists from around the world demand that repression cease and release political prisoners

They demand a commitment to organize free and fair elections, otherwise they ask governments and organizations to "increase diplomatic pressure"

More than 400 academics call on the Government of Daniel Ortega to release the opposition presidential candidates

12 de junio 2021


More than 400 academics, researchers and political scientists have signed an open letter in which they call on the Government of Daniel Ortega to release the opposition presidential candidates, civil society actors and the rest of the political prisoners.

Otherwise they affirm "it is imperative that governments, intergovernmental organizations, and international organizations collaborate to increase diplomatic pressure on the Ortega-Murillo government."

Among the signatories, there are professors from prestigious universities in the United States, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Spain, the United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands, Scotland, Bolivia and Peru.

Nicaragua needs "free and fair elections"

We, the undersigned, are scholars and researchers of Latin American politics and social issues, many of us focused on Nicaragua. We are gravely concerned by the Nicaraguan government’s treatment of its political opponents. We call on the Nicaraguan government to release detained opposition presidential candidates, civil society figures, and all other political prisoners. We urge international actors to press Nicaragua’s government to revoke laws restricting civil liberties and to allow truly free and fair elections in November.

The government’s crackdown on mass protests after April 2018 left over 300 dead and thousands injured. Many more were imprisoned or forced into exile. These abuses were documented by the United Nations, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, and other independent experts. Since 2018, President Daniel Ortega and Vice President Rosario Murillo’s government has resisted calls for early elections and democratizing reforms. Instead, the government appears determined to make the scheduled November 2021 elections even less democratic. As of June 9, police have arrested four of the most prominent potential opposition presidential candidates—Cristiana Chamorro, Arturo Cruz, Félix Maradiaga, and Juan Sebastián Chamorro—and members of their families and staff, as well as leaders of the business community and civil society organizations. These include former chamber of commerce president José Adán Aguerri, activist Violeta Granera, and former government minister and economist José Pallais. Other activists and journalists are facing legal threats or surveillance, while civil society groups and international organizations’ activities are severely restricted. Protest remains criminalized.

We urgently call on the Nicaraguan government to cease this repression, release all political prisoners, and to work with the opposition to commit to holding free and fair elections. Barring immediate action by the government to fulfill these conditions, it is imperative that governments, intergovernmental bodies, and international organizations collaborate to bring additional diplomatic pressure to bear on the Ortega-Murillo government, while taking care to avoid collateral impacts on the Nicaraguan people as a whole after several years of economic hardship. All Nicaraguans deserve to determine who governs them and to live in a society without fear of the state. At a time when political freedoms are under threat throughout the Americas, it is crucial to support Nicaraguans struggling for democracy, and to ensure the Ortega-Murillo government’s repression is not seen as an example for leaders and a warning for dissidents elsewhere in the region.

Those wishing to sign the letter can do so here.

  1. Kai M. Thaler, Assistant Professor of Global Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara
  2. Deborah J. Yashar, Professor of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University
  3. Steven Robert Levitsky, David Rockefeller Professor of Latin American Studies and Director of the Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University
  4. Kenneth Roberts, Professor of Government, Cornell University
  5. Scott Mainwaring, Professor of Political Science, University of Notre Dame
  6. Thomas B F Cummins, Dumbarton Oaks Professor of the History of Pre-Columbian and Colonial Art and Director of Dumbarton Oaks, Harvard University
  7. James Mahoney, Gordon Fulcher Professor of Decision-Making, Northwestern University
  8. Javier Corrales, Professor of Political Science, Amherst College
  9. Lindsay Mayka, Associate Professor of Government, Colby College
  10. Gabriel Aguilera López, Decano Regional - Ciencias Sociales, Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey
  11. Aníbal Pérez-Liñán, Profesor de Ciencia Politica, University of Notre Dame
  12. Maria Victoria Murillo, Professor of Political Science, Columbia University
  13. Javier Auyero, Professor of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin
  14. Susan Eckstein, Professor, Boston University
  15. Carlos De La Torre, Director of the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
  16. Alfred P. Montero, Frank B. Kellogg Professor of Political Science, Carleton College
  17. Leslie Anderson, Research Foundation Professor, University of Florida
  18. Sebastián Etchemendy. Professor Political Science, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
  19. Santiago Anria, Assistant Professor of Political Science and Latin American Studies, Dickinson College
  20. Noam Lupu, Associate Professor of Political Science, Vanderbilt University
  21. Claudio Lomnitz, Professor, Columbia University
  22. Robert Kaufman, Distinguished Professor, Rutgers University
  23. Alberto Simpser, Profesor, ITAM
  24. Marcelo Bergman, Profesor, UNTREF, Argentina
  25. Ernesto F. Calvo, Profesor, University of Maryland
  26. Matthew Carnes, Associate Professor of Government and Director of Center for Latin American Studies, Georgetown University
  27. Catalina Smulovitz, Profesora Plenaria, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
  28. Gretchen Helmke, Professor of Political Science, University of Rochester
  29. Margarita López Maya, Profesora-Investigadora, Universidad Central de Venezuela, CENDES
  30. Lillian Guerra, Professor of Latin American History, University of Florida
  31. Mario Pecheny, Profesor e Investigador, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET
  32. María Matilde Ollier, Directora doctorado Ciencia Política, Escuela de Política y Gobierno, UNSAM
  33. Alejandro De Oto, Investigador y docente universitario, CONICET-UNSJ-Argentina
  34. Rolando Gonzalez-Jose, Dr. en Biología, CONICET
  35. Sebastián Barros, Profesor titular, Univ. Nac. De la Patagonia, Argentina
  36. Juan Negri, Associate Professor, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
  37. Ricardo Gutiérrez, Profesor e Investigador, CONICET- Universidad Nacional De San Martín, Argentina
  38. Ludovico Feoli, Director, Center for Inter-American Policy and Research, Tulane University
  39. Federico Merke, Profesor Asociado, Universidad de San Andrés
  40. Daniela Campello, Associate professor, Getulio Vargas Foundation
  41. Juan Pablo Luna, Professor, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
  42. Carlos Henrique Alves Limeira, Cientista político, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB
  43. Patrick Cunha Silva, Ph.D. Candidate, Washington University in St. Louis
  44. Andrew Schrank, Olive C. Watson Professor of Sociology and International and Public Affairs, Brown University
  45. Kenneth Greene, Associate Professor, University of Texas at Austin
  46. João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology, Princeton University
  47. Douglas S. Massey, Henry G. Bryant Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs, Princeton University
  48. Karen Kampwirth, Robert W. Murphy Professor of Political Science, Knox College
  49. Shelley McConnell, Associate Professor of Government, St. Lawrence University
  50. Maria Paula Saffon, Investigadora, UNAM
  51. Gerardo L. Munck, Profesor, Universidad del Sur de California
  52. Sandra Jessica Ley Gutierrez, Profesora-Investigadora Titular, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE)
  53. Sandra Serrano, Profesora – Investigadora, FLACSO México
  54. Rachel Sieder, Profesora-Investigadora, CIESAS, Mexico City
  55. Rossana Castiglioni, Profesora, Universidad Diego Portales
  56. Gabriela Tarouco, Professora, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  57. Eduardo Alemán, Associate Professor, University of Houston
  58. Michael Coppedge, Professor of Political Science, University of Notre Dame
  59. Miguel Centeno, Professor, Princeton University
  60. Laura Gamboa, Assistant Professor, University of Utah
  61. Pablo M. Pinto, Associate Professor, University of Houston
  62. Diana Isabel Güiza Gómez, Ph.D. Student in Political Science and Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame
  63. Gianfranco Pasquino, Emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of Bologna, ITALY
  64. Kathryn A. Sikkink, Ryan Family Professor of Human Rights Policy, Harvard Kennedy School
  65. Rodolfo Vázquez, Professor, Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM)
  66. Sebastian Mazzuca, Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins University
  67. Alejandro Monsivais Carrillo, Investigador, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
  68. Jorge Mangonnet, Investigador postdoctoral, Nuffield College, Universidad de Oxford
  69. Martín Tanaka, Politólogo, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú / Instituto de Estudios Peruanos
  70. Doris Sommer, Professor/ Catedratica, Harvard University
  71. Andreas Schedler, Professor of Political Science, CIDE-Mexico City
  72. Kelly M. Greenhill, 2020-21 Leverhulme Trust Visiting Professor, Tufts and Harvard (HKS) Universities; SOAS (20-21)
  73. Kurt Weyland, Mike Hogg Professor in Liberal Arts, University of Texas
  74. Francisco Valdes-Ugalde, Professor-Researcher, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales-UNAM
  75. John M. Carey, Wentworth Professor in the Social Sciences, Dartmouth College
  76. Tulia Falleti, Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania
  77. Mariano Siskind, Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures and Comparative Literature, Harvard University
  78. Pauline Capdevielle, Investigadora, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM
  79. Sheri Berman, Professor, Barnard College, Columbia University
  80. Rachel Nolan, Assistant Professor, Boston University
  81. Maxwell A. Cameron, Professor, University of British Columbia
  82. Gabriela Irem Noles Cotito, Estudiante de doctorado, Universidad de Pensilvania
  83. Edwin Alvarado-Mena, Ph.D. student, The University of Arizona
  84. Alejandro Rodiles Breton, Profesor/Investigador, ITAM/Berlin-Potsdam Research Center KFG
  85. Richard M Leventhal, Professor – Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania
  86. Juan Pablo Ardila, History PhD candidate, University of Pennsylvania
  87. Javier Martín Reyes, Profesor, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE, México)
  88. Randall Burson, MD-PhD Student, University of Pennsylvania
  89. Michael Jones-Correa, President's Distinguished Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania
  90. Isabella Alcañiz, Associate Professor of Government and Politics, University of Maryland
  91. Magdalena Lopez, Investigadora académica, University of Notre Dame
  92. Ruth Berins Collier, Professor, University of California, Berkeley
  93. Catherine E. Bartch, Associate Director, Latin American and Latinx Studies, University of Pennsylvania
  94. Patricia Funes, Historiadora, UBA/CONICET
  95. Graciela Montaldo, Professor, Columbia University
  96. Jessica Rich, Associate Professor, Marquette University
  97. Michael Weintraub, Profesor Asociado, Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad de los Andes
  98. Ioannis D. Evrigenis, Professor of Political Science; Director of the International Relations Program, Tufts University
  99. Richard Snyder, Professor of Political Science, Brown University
  100. Eric Mosinger, Assistant Professor, Santa Clara University
  101. Pablo Palumbo, Politólogo, Universidad Nacional de San Martín
  102. María Teresa Lozano O'Reilly, Estudiante de doctorado, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas UNAM
  103. Hilary Francis, Lecturer, Northumbria University
  104. Don Leonard, Assistant Professor of Practice, The Ohio State University
  105. Adrián Lucardi, Profesor Asociado de Tiempo Completo, ITAM
  106. Sergio Angel, Profesor Investigador, Universidad Sergio Arboleda
  107. Rafael R. Ioris, Associate Professor, University of Denver
  108. Rachel Bowen, Associate Professor, The Ohio State University
  109. Consuelo Amat Matus, Postdoctoral Research Scholar, Stanford University
  110. Nico Millman, PhD Candidate, English Department, University of Pennsylvania
  111. Alisha Holland, Associate Professor of Government, Harvard University
  112. Janice Gallagher, Assistant Professor, Rutgers University-Newark
  113. Agustina Giraudy, Associate Professor, American University
  114. Lucas Gonzalez, Professor and Researcher, CONICET/UCA-UNSAM
  115. Kent Eaton, Professor of Politics, University of California, Santa Cruz
  116. Edward Gibson, Professor, Northwestern University
  117. Robert Brett, PhD Candidate, University of Pennsylvania
  118. Alison Brysk, Distinguished Professor, University of California Santa Barbara
  119. Juan Cristóbal Castro, Profesor, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
  120. Liliana De Riz, Socióloga, CADAL
  121. Jorge Miguel Streb, Profesor, Universidad del Cema
  122. Carlos Pabon, Profesor, University of Puerto Rico
  123. David Altman, Profesor, Instituto de Ciencia Política, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
  124. Laura López-Pérez, PhD student of Political Science, University of Notre Dame
  125. Ignacio Labaqui, Profesor Pro-Titular, Universidad Católica Argentina
  126. Rachel A. Schwartz, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Otterbein University
  127. Brian H. Smith, Professor Emeritus of Religion, Ripon College
  128. Sara Niedzwiecki, Assistant Professor, University of California, Santa Cruz
  129. Andy Baker, Professor, University of Colorado Boulder
  130. Hernan Jose Alberro, Periodista, Independent
  131. Pablo Rueda-Saiz, Associate Professor, University of Miami School of Law
  132. Rose Spalding, Professor, DePaul University
  133. Mario Sánchez González, Investigador Universitario, Universidad Centroamericana de Nicaragua
  134. Nina Gerassi-Navarro, Professor, Tufts University
  135. Douglas Castro, Alianza Universitaria Nicaragüense
  136. Noémi Gonda, Researcher / Investigadora, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences / Universidad Sueca de Ciencias Agrícolas
  137. Serena Cosgrove, Associate Professor in International Studies, Seattle University
  138. Sergio Miguel Cabrales Domínguez, Doctorando en Sociología, University of Pittsburgh
  139. Beatriz Magaloni, Professor, Stanford University
  140. Laura Blume, Assistant Professor, University of Nevada Reno
  141. Hector M. Cruz-Feliciano, Director of Programs, Latin America, CET Academic Programs
  142. Jana Morgan, Professor of Political Science, University of Tennessee
  143. Raquel Neyra, Docente, UNALM
  144. Nathalia Hernandez Vidal, Doctora en sociología, Independiente
  145. Eduardo Dargent, Profesor, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
  146. Paula Munoz, Profesora asociada, Universidad del Pacífico
  147. César Augusto Guadalupe Mendizábal, Profesor-investigador, Universidad del Pacífico (Perú)
  148. Jennifer Goett, Associate Professor of Comparative Cultures and Politics, Michigan State University
  149. Jennifer Cyr, Associate Professor, Universidad Torcuato di Tella
  150. Steven B. Bloomfield, Associate Director, Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, Brown University
  151. Bruno Bolognesi, Political Scientista/Professor, Federal University of Paraná
  152. Maria Julia Bertomeu, Investigadora Principal, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas, Argentina
  153. Elisabeth Jean Wood, Professor of Political Science, Yale University
  154. Dolores Figueroa Romero, Profesora de Antropologia Social, CONACYT- CIESAS CDMX
  155. Carlos Ivan Paredes Estrada, Estudiante de universidad, Alianza Universitaria Nicaraguense (AUN)
  156. John Mazza, Manager of Web and Multimedia Production, Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, Brown University
  157. Paola Bergallo, Profesora, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
  158. Sergio Villena, Profesor, Universidad de Costa Rica
  159. Alberto J. Olvera, Professor, Universidad Veracruzana
  160. Robert Devigne, Professor of Political Science, Tufts University
  161. Veronica Rueda Estrada, Profesora-investigadora, Universidad de Quintana Roo
  162. Diedrich Delallana, Abogado, Unidad Nacional Azul y Blanco (UNAB)
  163. Alba Reyes Lara, Profesora y estudiante, UNAM
  164. Mónica Toussaint, Profesora-Investigadora, Instituto Mora (Mexico)
  165. Felipe Flores Vichi, Profesor Investigador , Universidad de Quintana Roo
  166. Beth Stephens, Distinguished Professor of Law, Rutgers Law School
  167. Deborah Schildkraut, Professor of Political Science, Tufts University
  168. Tim Phillips, Founder, Beyond Conflict
  169. Soili Buska, Profesora, Universidad de Costa Rica
  170. Gustavo Fuchs, Profesor universitario, Universidad Nacional
  171. Claudia Mandel, Directora, Museo de las Mujeres de Costa Rica
  172. Claudio Vargas, Historiador, Universidad de Costa Rica
  173. Benjamin Waddell, Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminology, Fort Lewis College
  174. Jane Esberg, Postdoctoral Fellow, Princeton University
  175. Karen Musalo, Professor, University of California, Hastings
  176. David Collier, Profesor Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley
  177. Néstor E. Rodríguez, Associate Professor, University of Toronto
  178. Ben Schneider, Professor, MIT
  179. Pablo Piccato, Profesor, Columbia University
  180. Eulogio Guzman, Senior Lecturer, Tufts University
  181. Pablo Livov, Museo de las Mujeres de Costa Rica
  182. Adela Vázquez Trejo, Docente, Universidad de Quintana Roo
  183. Leda M. Pérez, Profesora e Investigadora, Universidad del Pacífico
  184. Sam Handlin, Associate Professor of Political Science, Swarthmore College
  185. Katrina Burgess, Associate Professor, Fletcher School, Tufts University
  186. Diana Pritchard, University of Bedfordshire
  187. Alberto Cortés Ramos, Profesor Catedrático, Universidad de Costa Rica
  188. Elizet Payne, Historiadora, Universidad de Costa Rica
  189. Natalia Armijo Canto, Profesora Investigadora, Universidad de Quintana Roo
  190. Ana Arjona, Profesora Asociada, Northwestern University
  191. Claudia Mattos Avolese, Senior Lecturer, Tufts University
  192. Rina Caceres-Gomez, Dra História, Universidad de Costa Rica
  193. Angelica Duran-Martinez, Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts Lowell
  194. Christine J. Wade, Professor of Political Science and International Studies, Washington College
  195. Yansi Pérez, Associate Professor, Carleton College
  196. Susanne Jonas, Continuing Lecturer (r), University of California, Santa Cruz
  197. Arlene B. Tickner, Professor of International Relations, Universidad del Rosario, Colombia
  198. Pierre M. LaRamee, Generation--Population, Development and Reproductive Health Consultants, LLC
  199. Kirsten Weld, Professor of History, Harvard University
  200. Delphine Lacombe, Soióloga, Université de Paris
  201. Federico Pérez, Assistant Professor, Portland State University
  202. Jon Jonakin, Emeritus Professor of Economics, Tennessee Technological University
  203. Dennis Arias Mora, Profesor Catedrático, Universidad de Costa Rica
  204. Lynn Maria Stephen, Profesora de Antropologia, University of Oregon
  205. Daniel Quirós, Associate Professor, Lafayette College
  206. Pedro Angel Palou, Fletcher Professor of Oratory, Tufts University
  207. Juanita M. Darling, Professor, San Francisco State University
  208. Amy Millay, Senior Lecturer, Tufts University
  209. Anjuli Fahlberg, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Tufts University
  210. Helen Marrow, Associate Professor of Sociology, Tufts University
  211. Florencia Quesada Avendaño, Doctora, Universidad de Helsinki
  212. Javier Osorio, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona
  213. John A. Booth, Professor Emeritus of Political Science, University of North Texas
  214. Benjamin Goldfrank, Professor, Seton Hall University
  215. Orlando J. Perez, Dean, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of North Texas at Dallas
  216. Jan L. Flora, Profesor Emerito, Iowa State University
  217. Adriana Zavala, Associate Professor, Tufts University
  218. Nicholas Barnes, Lecturer, University of St. Andrews
  219. Celso Rocha de Barros, Colunista, Folha de São Paulo
  220. Pedro Zubieta Funes, Professor, Universidad Católica Boliviana
  221. Ben Orlove, Professor, Columbia University
  222. Eva Leticia Orduña Trujillo, Investigadora de tiempo completo, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América Latina y el Caribe de la UNAM
  223. Maria Celeste Braga Beatove, Profesora de Derecho, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
  224. Virginia Oliveros, Associate Professor, Tulane University
  225. Cecilia Conde, Investigadora, UNAM, Mexico
  226. Ilka Treminio, Directora, FLACSO Costa Rica
  227. Ezequiel González Ocantos, Associate Professor, University of Oxford
  228. Cristina Eguizábal, Profesora, FLACSO Costa Rica
  229. Fernando M. Jaime, Profesor Titular, UBA / UNAJ
  230. Juany Guzmán León, Profesora Catedrática Pensionada, Universidad de Costa Rica
  231. Gabriel Puricelli, Coordinator, International Policy Programme, Laboratorio de Políticas Públicas
  232. Natalia Jacovkis, Associate Professor of Spanish, Xavier University
  233. Caio Tendolini, Economista, Bancada Ativista
  234. Mark Healey, Associate Professor, University of Connecticut
  235. Julio F. Carrión, Associate Professor, University of Delaware
  236. Juan Crespo, Doctorando en Estudios sobre Desarrollo, Univeresidad del País Vasco / Instituto HEGOA
  237. Noah Zweig, Investigador independiente, Independiente
  238. Mariano Sánchez-Talanquer, Profesor Investigador, El Colegio de México
  239. Rebecca Galemba, Associate Professor, University of Denver
  240. Pauline Jones, Professor, University of Michigan
  241. Jacob Turner, PhD Candidate, University of Notre Dame
  242. Daniel Friedrich, Associate Professor of Curriculum, Teachers College, Columbia University
  243. Vaclav Masek, Ph.D. Student in Sociology, University of Southern California
  244. Patrick McQuestion, Research Associate, University of Notre Dame
  245. Alexandra Panzarelli, PhD candidate, New School for Social Research
  246. Wendy Hunter, Professor of Government, University of Texas
  247. Juan Manuel Muñoz Portillo, Profesor, Universidad de Costa Rica
  248. Timothy Scully, Professor of Political Science, University of Notre Dame
  249. Maritza Paredes, Profesora Asociada, Pontifica Universidad Católica del Peru
  250. Chris O'Connell, Research Fellow, Dublin City University
  251. Marta Bunge, Profesora Emerita de Matematicas, McGill University
  252. Caitlin Andrews-Lee, Assistant Professor, Ryerson University
  253. Antulio Rosales, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of New Brunswick
  254. Luis Herrán Ávila, Assistant Professor of History, University of New Mexico
  255. Roy Hora, Investigador Principal, CONICET, Argentina
  256. Raul Sanchez Urribarri, Senior Lecturer in Legal Studies, La Trobe University
  257. Matias Bianchi, Director, Asuntos del Sur
  258. Juan Jesús Garza Onofre, Investigador de tiempo completo, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM
  259. José Briceño Ruiz, Professor - Researcher, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México
  260. Norma Graciela Chiapparrone, Abogada, NoSomosIncubadoras
  261. Maria Isabel Mayer, Grupo YANAPAI
  262. Calla Hummel, Assistant Professor, University of Miami
  263. Julio Rios Figueroa, Profesor Titular, ITAM
  264. Sarah Daly, Assistant Professor, Columbia University
  265. María Isabel Puerta Riera, Adjunct Professor of Political Science, Valencia College
  266. Linda Estelí Méndez Barrientos, PhD candidate/Incoming Assistant Professor, University of California Davis/Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver
  267. Randy Pestana, Assistant Director of Research, Gordon Institute, Florida International University
  268. David Smilde, Professor of Sociology, Tulane University
  269. Monica Martinez, Research Case Investigator, Georgia State University
  270. Kristina Lyons, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania
  271. Javier Arteaga, Publicista y Director, Feeling (Colombia)
  272. Jennifer Pribble, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Richmond
  273. Juliana Martine Franzoni, Catedrática, Universidad de Costa Rica
  274. Bill (William) A. Barnes, Independent scholar
  275. Joseph Young, Professor, American University
  276. James Loxton, Senior Lecturer in Comparative Politics, University of Sydney
  277. Víctor Hugo Acuña Ortega, Catedrático y profesor emérito, Universidad de Costa Rica
  278. María Esther Montanaro Mena, Editora de Cuadernos Inter.c.a.mbio sobre Centroamérica y el Caribe, CIICLA, Universidad de Costa Rica
  279. Rosario Hidalgo, Medical Doctor and Researcher, Tampa Comprehensive Psychiatry, LLC
  280. Imdat Oner, PhD Candidate, Florida International University
  281. Pablo Martín Ruiz, Profesor, Tufts University
  282. Florence E. Babb, Anthony Harrington Professor of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  283. Carmen Caamaño Morúa, Docente, Universidad de Costa Rica
  284. Luis Alberto, Director, Amexcap
  285. Giancarlo Visconti, Assistant Professor, Purdue University
  286. Benedicte Bull, Professor, University of Oslo
  287. Armando Chaguaceda, Investigador de Gobierno & Análisis Político, Independiente
  288. José Antonio Sanahuja, Catedrático de Relaciones Internacionales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid
  289. Eline van Ommen, Lecturer, Utrecht University
  290. Julie Cupples, Professor of Human Geography and Cultural Studies, University of Edinburgh
  291. Sabine Kurtenbach, Lead Researcher, GIGA
  292. Anika Oettler, Professor of Sociology, Philipps Universität Marburg
  293. Abbey Steele, Associate Professor, University of Amsterdam
  294. Francisco J. Verdes-Montenegro, Investigador, ICEI
  295. Fabio Andres Diaz Pabon, Researcher, International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University
  296. Cecilia Güemes, Profesora, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  297. Andrew Nickson, Honorary Reader in Latin American Studies, University of Birmingham
  298. Julienne Weegels, Assistant Professor, CEDLA-University of Amsterdam
  299. Leandro N Carrera, Research Associate, PPG - London School of Economics
  300. Silke Heumann, Senior Lecturer, International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University
  301. Lucy Taylor, Senior Lecturer, Aberystwyth University
  302. Alvaro Ebanks, Administrador de Empresas, SOS Nicaragua-Holanda
  303. Goya Wilson Vásquez, Senior Research Associate, University of Bristol
  304. Ana Victoria Portocarrero Lacayo, Doctorante en el Instituto de Estudios Sociales, Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam
  305. David Preston, Social scientist lecturer, retired, University of Oxford & University of Leeds
  306. Arij Ouweneel, Profesor universitario, Universidad de Amsterdam
  307. Floor van der Hout, Doctoral candidate, Northumbria University
  308. Peter Wade, Professor of Social Anthropology, University of Manchester
  309. Dirk Kruijt, Professor of Development Studies Emeritus, Utrecht University
  310. Luisa F. González Valencia, Candidata a doctorado, Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos de la Universidad de Ámsterdam - CEDLA
  311. Lillian Sol Cueva, PhD researcher, International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University
  312. Sarah Kemp, PhD candidate, Northumbria University, UK
  313. William C. Smith, Professor Emeritus, University of Miami
  314. Patience Schell, Chair in Hispanic Studies, University of Aberdeen
  315. Masaya Llavaneras Blanco, Incoming Assistant Professor, Huron University College
  316. Salvador Martí i Puig, Profesor, Universidad de Girona
  317. Michael Deibert, Visiting Scholar, Instituto Ciências Sociais
  318. Eduardo Moncada, Assistant Professor, Barnard College, Columbia University
  319. Francisco J. Monaldi, Fellow, Rice University
  320. Rutgerd Boelens, Professor, Wageningen University & University of Amsterdam
  321. Hannah Porada, PhD Candidate, CEDLA, University of Amsterdam
  322. Jordi Diez, Catedrático, University of Guelph, Canada
  323. Newton Bignotto, Professor Titular, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil
  324. Kristin Skrabut, Assistant Professor of Urban Policy & Anthropology, Tufts University
  325. Daisy D'Amario, Profesora, Sociología, Universidad Central de Venezuela
  326. Sonia Garzon Ramirez, Marie Curie Research Fellow, Aberystwyth University
  327. Sonia Correa, Pesquisadora Social y Activista, Observatorio de Sexualidad y Politica
  328. Mneesha Gellman, Associate Professor of Political Science, Emerson College
  329. Susan Stokes, Blake Distinguished Service Professor, University of Chicago
  330. Mónica Roa, Directora Ejecutiva, Puentes/Bridges
  331. Maria Jose Montoya, Abogada, Sinergias-Alianzas Estratégicas para la Salud y el Desarrollo Social
  332. Ryan E. Carlin, Professor of Political Science, Georgia State University
  333. James M. Glaser, Professor of Political Science/Dean of Arts and Sciences, Tufts University
  334. Marta Royo, Directora Ejecutiva, Profamilia
  335. Noe Montez, Associate Professor of Theatre, Dance and Performance Studies, Tufts University
  336. Logan Puck, Lecturer, Bates College
  337. Philippe Urfalino, Senior Researcher, CNRS
  338. Lena Lavinas, Professor, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
  339. Bibiana Duarte, PhD researcher, University of Amsterdam
  340. Sian Lazar, Reader in Social Anthropology, University of Cambridge
  341. Trevor Evans, Professor of Economics, Berlin School of Economics and Law
  342. Corina Rodriguez Enriquez, Economista, CIEPP - DAWN, Argentina
  343. Pablo Collada, Director, Red Catapulta
  344. Regina Fonseca, Coordinadora de programa, Centro de Derechos de Mujeres
  345. Gabriela Ugarte, Comunicadora y analista de gestión constructiva de conflictos, Consultora independiente
  346. Gerardo Scherlis, Profesor Titular - Investigador, Universidad de Buenos Aires - Conicet
  347. Christian Gros, Profesor, Universidad Sorbona Paris
  348. Abigail Satinsky, Curator, Tufts University Art Galleries
  349. Paul Amar, Professor and Director of the Orfalea Center for Global and International Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara
  350. Francisco R Rodriguez, Director, Oil for Venezuela
  351. Candelaria Garay, Senior Fellow, Harvard University
  352. Abby Cordova, Associate Professor, University of Notre Dame
  353. Ricardo Valencia, Assistant Professor, California State University, Fullerton
  354. Morena Soledad Herrera Argueta, Candidata a Doctorado en Filosofía Iberoamericana, Colectiva Feminista para el Desarrollo Local
  355. Susan Brewer-Osorio, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona
  356. Javier Fernández-Lasquetty, Consejero de Hacienda, Comunidad de Madrid (España)
  357. Derek Beaudry, Lecturer, University of North Georgia
  358. Julio Saguir, Doctor en Ciencia Politica y docente universitario, Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino (Tucuman)
  359. Rod Mena, Assistant Professor, International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam
  360. Manuela Picq, Profesora de Relaciones Internacionales, Amherst College / Universidad San Francisco de Quito
  361. Courtney J. Campbell, Lecturer in Latin American History, University of Birmingham (UK)
  362. Adrián Pignataro, Profesor, Universidad de Costa Rica
  363. Galia Solomonoff, Professor of Architecture, Columbia University
  364. Yanina Welp, Investigadora senior, Albert Hirschman Centre on Democracy, Graduate Institute, Geneva
  365. Mateo Jarquín, Assistant Professor of History, Chapman University
  366. Elizabeth Oglesby, Associate Professor of Latin American Studies, University of Arizona
  367. Iria Puyosa, Profesora Asociada, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Comunicación (ININCO) - Universidad Central de Venezuela.
  368. Mariela Palma Cambronero, President, Asociación Libre
  369. Melissa Martinez, Assistant Professor, University of Mary Washington
  370. Bárbara Brizuela, Professor, Tufts University
  371. Kevin Parthenay, Full Professor of Political Science, University of Tours
  372. Aaron Pollack, Profesor/Investigador, CIESAS
  373. María Fernanda Bozmoski, Deputy Director, Programs, Atlantic Council
  374. Adriana Rudling, Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway
  375. Joshua Mayer, PhD candidate in Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles
  376. Heather S. Nathans, Professor, Department of Theatre, Dance, and Performance Studies, Tufts University
  377. Jorge Recharte Bullard, Presidente, Instituto de Montaña
  378. Wendi Bellanger, Provost, Universidad Centroamericana
  379. José Luis Rocha, Investigador asociado, Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas"
  380. Vickie Sullivan, Professor, Tufts University
  381. Daniel I. Pedreira, PhD candidate in Political Science, Florida International University
  382. Camilo Saavedra, Investigador, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, UNAM (México)
  383. John Polga-Hecimovich, Assistant Professor, US Naval Academy
  384. Ángela Fonseca Galvis, Associate Professor, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
  385. Gabriela Nouzeilles, Professor and Director of the Program in Latin American Studies, Princeton University
  386. José Henríquez Leiva, PhD Fellow, National University of Ireland Galway
  387. Ana María Méndez-Dardón, Human rights lawyer, University of Guelph
  388. Elvira Cuadra, Socióloga, Centro de Investigación de la Comunicación
  389. William I. Robinson, Distinguished Professor of Sociology, University of California at Santa Barbara
  390. Robert Carlson, Editor, Global Americans
  391. Johanna Cilano Pelaez, Posdoctorante, UNAM
  392. Joseph Nevins, Professor of Geography, Vassar College
  393. M. Brinton Lykes, Professor and Co-Director, Center for Human Rights & International Justice, Boston College
  394. Pablo Bolaños Villegas, Associate Faculty, University of Costa Rica, Fabio Baudrit Agricultural Research Station
  395. Marisol de la Cadena, Professor, University of California-Davis
  396. Luis Alberto Figueroa Jurado, Profesor, Universidad Francisco Marroquín
  397. M. Emilia Barbosa, Assistant Professor, Missouri University of Science and Technology
  398. Carlos Castro Jo, Professor of Sociology, Clark College
  399. Alexander L. Fattal, Assistant Professor, University of California, San Diego
  400. Oscar René Vargas Escobar, Sociólogo y Economista, Centro de Estudio de la Realidad Nacional – Nicaragua
  401. Julia Medina, Associate Professor of Spanish, University of San Diego
  402. Milton Castellanos, Spanish Professor, Northwest Career and Technical Academy, Las Vegas, NV
  403. Alexandra Ortiz Wallner, Investigadora y docente, Universidad de Costa Rica/Freie Universität Berlin
  404. Valeria Grinberg Pla, Professor, Bowling Green State University
  405. Julia Calderón, Ph.D. Candidate, UCLA
  406. Pamela Neumann, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Texas A&M International University
  407. Osvaldo Meloni, Professor of economics, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina
  408. James Quesada, Professor, San Francisco State University
  409. Jorge Resina, Profesor de Ciencia Política, Universidad Complutense de Madrid
  410. Tatiana Arguello, Assistant Professor of Spanish, Texas Christian University
  411. Irene Correas Sosa, Profesor adjunto de Derecho Constitucional, Universidad San Pablo CEU
  412. Juan F. Ibarra Del Cueto, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Colgate University
  413. Rosa Patricia Ruiz Urbina, Docente pensionada, Independiente
  414. Humberto Meza, Investigador, INCT Observatório das Metrópoles, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  415. Michael Paarlberg, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Virginia Commonwealth University
  416. Charles Walker, Professor, UC Davis
  417. Bárbara Brizuela, Professor, Tufts University
  418. William H. Gomez Soto, Profesor, Ufpel, Brasil
  419. Patricia Bayer Richard, Professor Emerita, Ohio University
  420. Loris Zanatta, Catedratico, Università di Bologna
  421. Adriano da Silva, Pesquisador, Fiocruz
  422. Ryan Daugherty, Instructor, Butler University
  423. Matt Samson, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Davidson College
  424. Daniel Centeno Maldonado, Faculty, University of Houston
  425. Ternot MacRenato, Professor of History (ret.), San Diego Community College District
  426. Gregory M. Thaler, Assistant Professor, University of Georgia
  427. Oxana Shevel, Associate Professor of Political Science, Tufts University
  428. Manuel Alcántara Sáez, Profesor, Universidad de Salamanca
  429. Elizabeth Remick, Associate Professor, Tufts University
  430. Jo-Marie Burt, Associate Professor, George Mason University
  431. Victoria González-Rivera, Associate Professor of Chicana and Chicano Studies, San Diego State University
  432. Irina Carlota Silber, Professor, City College of New York
  433. Maria Emilia Bianco, Graduate researcher, Boston College
  434. Philip J. Williams, Dean, College of Liberal Arts, California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo

Signatures as of 14:27 Pacific Time, June 11. Signatures are still being collected and will be added at least twice daily

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Confidencial es un diario digital nicaragüense, de formato multimedia, fundado por Carlos F. Chamorro en junio de 1996. Inició como un semanario impreso y hoy es un medio de referencia regional con información, análisis, entrevistas, perfiles, reportajes e investigaciones sobre Nicaragua, informando desde el exilio por la persecución política de la dictadura de Daniel Ortega y Rosario Murillo.